How Posting Purchases on Social Media Influences Happiness: The Role of Self-Esteem
Keywords:Social media, user-generated content, self-presentation, self-esteem, posting purchases, happiness
The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of posting one’s purchases on the content creator’s happiness attained from the purchases. A survey (n=207) was conducted on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Multiple regression and floodlight analysis were utilized to examine the data, which show that posting purchases on social media as a new way of self-presentation interplays with self-esteem in influencing consumers’ happiness obtained from the posted purchases. Specifically, posting behavior increases the happiness among consumers with higher self-esteem, but has no effects on consumers with lower self-esteem. This article fills the gap among literature about the influences of the different self-presentation styles caused by self- esteem, and advances our understanding of how social media usage differently influences consumers with higher and lower self-esteem. This research also provides novel insights into the role of self-presentation in consumers’ happiness from purchases and the affective benefits of creating user-generated content. This article is pioneering in investigating the behavior of posting purchases on social media. It is the first research revealing the complicated interaction between the behavior and the content creators’ self-esteem in influencing happiness obtained from the purchases.
Acar, A. (2008). Antecedents and consequences of online social networking behavior: The case of Facebook. Journal of Website Promotion, 3(1-2), 62-83.
Arkin, R. M. (1981). Self-presentation styles. In J. T. Tedeschi (Ed.), Impression Management Theory and Social Psychological Research, pp. 311-333. New York: Academic Press.
Back, M. D., Stopfer, J. M., Vazire S., Gaddis S., Schmukle, S. C., Egloff, B., & Gosling, S. D. (2010). Facebook profiles reflect actual personality, not self-idealization. Psychological Science, 21(3), 372-374.
Ball, A. D., & Tasaki, L. H. (1992). The role and measurement of attachment in consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 1(2), 155-172.
Barasch, A., & Berger J. (2014). Broadcasting and narrowcasting: How audience size affects what people share. Journal of Marketing Research, 51(3), 286-299.
Baumeister, R. F. (1982). Self-esteem, self-presentation, and future interaction: A dilemma of reputation. Journal of Personality, 50(1), 29-45.
Baumeister, R. F., & Tice, D. M. (1985). Self‐esteem and responses to success and failure: Subsequent performance and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality, 53(3), 450- 467.
Baumeister, R. F., Tice, D. M., & Hutton, D. G. (1989). Self-presentational motivations and personality differences in self-esteem. Journal of Personality, 57(3), 547-579.
Belk, R. W. (1988). Possessions and the extended self. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(2), 139-168.
Bendelow, G., & Williams, S. J. (1998). Emotions in social life: Critical themes and contemporary issues. London: Routledge.
boyd, d. (2007). Why youth (heart) social network sites: The role of networked publics in teenage social life. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Learning–Youth, Identity, and Digital Media, pp. 119-142. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Boyle, K., & Johnson, T. J. (2010). MySpace is your space? Examining self-presentation of MySpace users. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1392-1399.
Brockner, J. (1979). The effects of self-esteem, success–failure, and self-consciousness on task performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(10), 1732-1741.
Brown, J. D. (1993). Motivational conflict and the self: The double-bind of low self-esteem. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Self-Esteem: The Puzzle of Low Self-Regard, pp.117-130. New York: Plenum Press.
Brown, J. D., & Marshall, M. A. (2001). Self-esteem and emotion: Some thoughts about feelings. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(5), 575-584.
Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. (1978). Social origins of depression: A reply. Psychological Medicine, 8(4), 577-588.
Chalfen, R. (2002). Snapshots "r" us: the evidentiary problematic of home media. Visual Studies, 17(2), 141-149.
Cruz Perez, R. (1973). The effect of experimentally induced failure, self-esteem, and sex on cognitive differentiation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82(1), 74-79.
Dunn E., Biesanz J., Human, L., & Finn, S. (2007). Misunderstanding the affective consequences of everyday social interactions: The hidden benefits of putting one’s best face forward. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 990–1005.
Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C. & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends”: Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1143-1168.
Ellison, N., Heino R., & Gibbs, J. (2006). Managing impressions online: Self‐ presentation processes in the online dating environment. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11 (2), 415-441.
Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24 (4), 343-373.
Goffman, E. (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. NY: Anchor Books.
Goldsmith, R. E., Pagani, M., & Lu, X. (2013). Social network activity and contributing to an online review site. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 7 (2), 100-118.
Gonzales, A. L., & Hancock, J. T. (2011). Mirror, mirror on my Facebook wall: Effects of exposure to Facebook on self-esteem. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14 (1-2), 79-83.
Haferkamp, N., Eimler, S. C., Papadakis, A., & Kruck, J. V. (2012). Men are from Mars, women are from Venus? Examining gender differences in self- presentation on social networking sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(2), 91-98.
Human, L. J., Biesanz, J. C., Parisotto, K. L., & Dunn, E. W. (2012). Your best self helps reveal your true self positive self-presentation leads to more accurate personality impressions. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(1), 23-30.
Ibrahim, Y. (2009). Social Networking Sites (SNS) and the ‘Narcissistic Turn’. In S. Rummler (Ed.), Collaborative Technologies and Applications for Interactive Information Design: Emerging Trends in User Experiences: Emerging Trends in User Experiences, pp. 82-95.
Joinson, A. N. (2003). Understanding the Psychology of Internet Behaviour. Basingstoke and NY: Palgrave.
Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68.
Kaplan, A. M. (2012). If you love something, let it go mobile: Mobile marketing and mobile social media 4x4. Business Horizons, 55(2), 129-139.
Kim, J., & Lee, J. R. (2011). The Facebook paths to happiness: Effects of the number of Facebook friends and self-presentation on subjective well-being. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(6), 359-364.
Kleine, S. S., Kleine R. E., & Allen, C. T. (1995). How is a possession “me” or “not me”? Characterizing types and an antecedent of material possession attachment. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(3), 327-343.
Kristofferson, K., White, K., & Peloza, J. (2014). The nature of slacktivism: How the social observability of an initial act of token support affects subsequent prosocial action. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(6), 1149-1166.
Krämer, N. C., & Winter S. (2008). Impression management 2.0: The relationship of self-esteem, extraversion, self-efficacy, and self-presentation within social networking sites. Journal of Media Psychology, 20(3), 106 -116.
Leary, M. R. (1995). Self-presentation: Impression management and interpersonal behavior. Brown and Benchmark Publishers.
Liu-Thompkins, Y., & Rogerson, M. (2012). Rising to stardom: An empirical investigation of the diffusion of user-generated content. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(2), 71-82.
Manago, A. M., Graham, M. B., Greenfield, P. M., & Salimkhan, G. (2008). Self-presentation and gender on MySpace. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(6), 446-458.
McCracken, G. (1989). Who is the celebrity endorser? Cultural foundations of the endorsement process. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 310-321.
Mikkola, H., Oinas, M., & Kumpulainen, K. (2008). Net-based identity and body image among young IRC-gallery users. In K. McFerrin et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2008 (pp. 3080-3085). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Mruk, C. J. (1999). Self-esteem: Research, Theory, and Practice. 2nd Ed. Springer Publishing Company.
Nadkarni, A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2012). Why do people use Facebook?. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(3), 243-249.
Naaman, M., Boase, J., & Lai, C. (2010). Is it really about me?: Message content in social awareness streams. Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Conference on Computer supported cooperative work, 189-192.
Pempek, T. A., Yermolayeva, Y. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2009). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(3), 227-238.
Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interactions in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31 (3), 437-448.
Richins, M. L. (2013). When wanting is better than having: Materialism, transformation expectations, and product-evoked emotions in the purchase process. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(1), 1-18.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rosenfeld, L. B. (1979). Self‐disclosure avoidance: Why I am afraid to tell you who I am. Communications Monographs, 46(1), 63-74.
Rui, J. R., & Stefanone, M. A. (2013). Strategic image management online: Self- presentation, self-esteem and social network perspectives. Information, Communication and Society, 16(8), 1286-1305.
Seidman, G. (2013). Self-presentation and belonging on Facebook: How personality influences social media use and motivations. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(3), 402-407.
Serna, A., Gerrikagoitia, J. K., & Bernabé, U. (2016). Discovery and classification of the underlying emotions in the user generated content (UGC). In Information and communication technologies in tourism 2016 (pp. 225-237). Springer International Publishing.
Schau, H. J., & Gilly, M. C. (2003). We are what we post? Self-presentation in personal web space. Journal of Consumer Research, 30(3), 385-404.
Schlenker, B. R., Weigold, M. F., & Hallam, J. R. (1990). Self-serving attributions in social context: Effects of self-esteem and social pressure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(5), 855-863.
Shrauger, J. S., & Sorman, P. B. (1977). Self-evaluations, initial success and failure, and improvement as determinants of persistence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45(5), 784 - 795.
Siibak, A. (2009). Constructing the self through the photo selection: The importance of photos on social networking websites. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 3(1), article 1.
Spiller, S. A., Fitzsimons, G. J., Lynch, J. G. Jr., & McClelland, G. H. (2013). Spotlights, floodlights, and the magic number zero: Simple effects tests in moderated regression. Journal of Marketing Research, 50(2), 277-288.
Stern, S. R. (2004). Expressions of identity online: Prominent features and gender differences in adolescents' World Wide Web home pages. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 48 (2), 218-243.
Strano, M. M. (2008). User descriptions and interpretations of self-presentation through Facebook profile images. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 2(2), article 1.
Subrahmanyam, K., Reich, S. M., Waechter, N., & Espinoza, G. (2008). Online and offline social networks: Use of social networking sites by emerging adults. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(6), 420-433.
Sun, T., Youn, S., Wu, G., & Kuntaraporn, M. (2006). Online word‐of‐mouth (or mouse): An exploration of its antecedents and consequences. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 11(4), 1104-1127.
Swann, W. B. Jr. (1990). To be adored or to be known? The interplay of self-enhancement and self-verification. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior, Vol. 2, pp. 408-448). New York: Guilford Press.
Tice, D. M. (1993). The social motivations of people with low self-esteem. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Self-Esteem: The Puzzle of Low Self-Regard, pp. 37-53. New York: Plenum Press.
Toubia, O., & Stephen, A. T. (2013). Intrinsic vs. image-related utility in social media: Why do people contribute content to Twitter?. Marketing Science, 32(3), 368-392.
Trigg, L. (2013). Using online reviews in social care. Social Policy and Administration, 48(3), 361-378.
Uski, S., & Lampinen, A. (2016). Social norms and self-presentation on social network sites: Profile work in action. New Media and Society, 18(3), 447-464.
Valkenburg, P. M., Peter J., & Schouten, A. P. (2006). Friend networking sites and their relationship to adolescents' well-being and social self-esteem. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 9(5), 584-590.
Van Boven, L., & Gilovich T. (2003). To do or to have? That is the question. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(6), 1193-1202.
Van Dijck, J. (2008). Digital photography: communication, identity, memory. Visual Communication, 7(1). 57-76.
Wojcik, S. P., & Ditto, P. H. (2014). Motivated happiness self-enhancement inflates self- reported subjective well-being. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5(7), 825- 834.
Wolfe, R. N., Lennox, R. D., & Cutler, B. L. (1986). Getting along and getting ahead: Empirical support for a theory of protective and acquisitive self-presentation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(2), 356 - 361.
Zhao, S., Grasmuck, S., & Martin, J. (2008). Identity construction on Facebook: Digital empowerment in anchored relationships. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 1816-1836.
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).